Colonial - c. 1824 ~ 1835
 - 1835 ~ 1836
Republic - 1836 ~ 1845/6*
Notes    Warrants    Documents

Early State - 1846 ~ 1861
Civil War - 1861 ~ 1865
Post WAr - 1865 & later

The author will attempt at some later date to notate the differences of each period in history and each variety found in those periods; however, at this time I will only show one example of each denomination of note.  Please report the discovery of new varieties.  These reference numbers were originally taken from Wm. West Bradbeer's 1915 reference.  It was expanded on by Grover C. Criswell between 1957 and 1992 when the first four of his five editions of Confederate States notes also contained the Southern State issues.  Criswell planned on a two book series in 1996 but he passed away before the State issues could be completed.  Hugh Shull was co-author of the 1997 CSA book and he finally published his reference in 2006 (2007).  Criswell added about twelve (12) new additions to Texas in his 1992 book.  Hugh Shull added a few more when his book came out and changed the order and reference numbers for some of the Early State and Civil War issues and added the first post-War listing.  There hadonly been one new note variety recognized since 1992 through 2012 and that was the $50 H21B.  In 2013 another variety was discovered and listed which was designated $50 H21C.  There are quite a few unlisted early state warrants included in this listing as well as a post-War issue and they too will be added to Shull's next book, provided he has the ability to do so..

Hugh Shull reference numbers are used throughout, although I may insert a Joe Olson number for any item unlisted in Shull.  I hope to add a complete description of the varieties at a later date as I find time to update this webpage.   Crutch Williams
Copyright © Notice

There are very few known handwritten promissory notes or warrants from this era, c. 1824~1835.  There is only one that was printed and that I consider collectible.  Consult your Olson reference for some of the other issue types.  There are all Rare!  

San Felipe de Austin  $50.00  1830  Image
A receipt and promissory note in one document that could be transferred.  

Ad Interim
Go To Documents to view Texian Loan (Jan 1836) and First Texian Loan Script (Jan 1838)

Republic Notes

*  Star Notes  *  Government  *  Medallion  *  Change Notes  *  Redbacks  *  Exchequer  *

First Issue of Notes in the name of The Republic of Texas.   These notes were issued from Houston, Texas:  They bear dates of 1837 and 1838.  This "Star" note issue was authorized by act of Congress "June 9th, 1837".  There is no vignette on these notes other than the outlined STAR at center.  Several minor varieties exist of each type and possibly for some not yet listed.  Most collectors strive to include at least one of these in their collections.  All are considered to be extremely scarce!
$5.00       H1 & H2    image
$10.00     H3, H3A, H4 & H4A    image  
$20.00     H5, H5A & H6    image  
$50.00     H7, H7A, H7B, H8   Image      H8 Wagon Wheel Cancel
$100.00   H9, H9A, H10, H10A, H10B & H11   image
$500.00   H12   image    (Very Rare!)
Second Issue of Notes in the name of The Government of Texas.  Issued from Houston, Texas all notes bear dates of 1838 or 1839.  This issue of notes was authorized by act of Congress "June 9th, 1837".  The notes are engraved by Draper, Toppan, Longacre # Co. Philadelphis & N.Y.  The $1 is extremely scarce, the $3 very scarce and $5 moderately scarce.  The $10, $20 & $50 are considered common with a couple scarcer varieties.
$  1.00  H14 & H14A  Liberty at left, Minerva at center  Image
$  3.00  H15, H15A & H15B  Commerce seated at center  Image
$  5.00  H16  Commerce at left, Indian on horseback hunting buffalo ctr.  Image
$10.00  H17 & H17A  Ship at left, Industry seated at right  Image
$20.00  H19  Liberty at left, Minerva at right  Image  
$50.00  H21  Sailor with flag at left, Justice seated at center  Image   (Four recognized varieties)

Two Variations of H19 'Star of David' Shield

The star at left looks to have an irregular or squared bottom point 'to the eye'.  When viewed under strong magnification, you can see several lines outlining the star.  The star at right is shaded in and the lines aren't visible.  No frame line visible above "20" counter at left while one is present at right.  This is a Minor H19 Variety.

H19b $20 Sub-variety and/or Plate State
Images for study only
  vignette  shield  

PCGS & PMG have both slabbed examples of  these new varieties
H21B & H21C as of March 2013:

Here are images H21, H21B, H21A and right H21C :       Four $50 Varieties  

Third Issue of Notes in the name of  The Republic of Texas  These are Change Notes but are commonly known by the term Medallion.  They were issued from Houston, Texas and bear written dates in 1838.  This issue was authorized by act of Congress "December 14, 1837"
$  1.00   H23  Medallion at left, man center [sleeping?], Thomas Jefferson right   Image    Another
$  2.00   H23  Medallion at left, Liberty, Shield & Eagle center, cotton right.  Image    Another
$  3.00    H27  Medallion at left, [same as the $1 design]  Image   Another 

Fourth Issue of Notes, in the name of - The Republic of Texas.  This series was issued from Austin, Texas.  $150,000 was authorized by an act of Congress, December 14, 1838, in $1, $2 and $3 denominations.  They bear written dates  1839 - 1841.  This issue was engraved by "Endicaott & Clark. New Orleans".  Collected as part of the Red Back issue the backs of these Change Notes are blank.  These were printed as four (4) subject sheets of 1-1-2-3.    
$ 1.00  A1  Ceres seated at center, Indian at left    Image
$ 2.00  A2  Cowboy roping longhorn steer, deer at left    Image
$ 3.00  A3  Ceres seated by Lone Star, cotton plant at left    Image

Fifth Issue of Notes, in the name of - The Republic of Texas.  Issued from Austin, Texas and authorized by act of Congress, January 19th, 1839   These notes were printed by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, New Orleans & New York
Written dates of 1839-1841.  Commonly referred to as Red Backs, all denominations $5 - $500 have an ornate red-orange [burnt-orange] design on the back featuring a large star in the center.  Image of this Red Back!
$    5.00  A4   Indian seated, Deaf Smith at right    Image
$  10.00  A5   Hercules at left, ship right Image
$  20.00  A6   Indian with bow l., Indian & maiden at center, Victory r.    Image
$  50.00  A7   Nude maiden l., steamship c., Stephen F. Austin r.    Image
$100.00  A8   Minerva seated & Mercury flying c., train l., ship r.    Image
$500.00  A9   Commerce & Industry seated, Libery r.    Image

Sixth Issue of Notes in the name of - The Republic of Texas.  Issued from Austin, Texas.  Authorized by act of Congress, January 29, 1842.  These are the Famous EXCHEQUER SERIES of notes.  For years people thought these notes were actually signed by Sam Houston!  He didn't sign them!  His signature on these notes are secretarial.  These notes are extremely RARE!  There are perhaps 25 to 30 pieces known to exist for all denomionation.  
$  .125   A10   Horse pulling plow, train left, woman right.  Image    Rowe/SMU  Image
$  .25     A11   Liberty seated, train left, woman in clouds right  Criswell plate, Rowe/SMU  Image 
$  .50     A12   Horse pulling plow to right, train left,   photo-John Rowe, SMU  Image
$ 1.00    A14   Ceres by bale of cotton, large size note  Criswell plate, Rowe/SMU  Image 
$ 5.00    A17   All printed signatures, name filled in, endorsed back  Criswell plate, Rowe/SMU  Image
[Images courtesy John N. Rowe, III Collection at Southern Methodist University]

Republic & State Warrants
*  Provisional  *  Velasco  *  Columbia  *  Houston  *
Consolidated Fund - Houston & Austin
*  Austin  *  Washington  *  Early State  *  Civil War  *

Provisional Warrants

First Issue of Warrants

I intend to get into a detailed discussion of the warrants and/or promissory notes, &c that are found in this period of history. A few of those listed in Shull and Olson are in my opinion uncollectible.  They are generally one of a kind documents penned at Bexer (San Antonio), Gonzales or some other location for either Military or Civil purpose which in turn had to be taken to San Felipe de Austin where the bearer would be issued another document (warrant) upon presentation of the original item..  
Criswell was incorrect when he said Washington (on the Brazos) was the place where these Provisional warrants were issued and Hugh Shull corrected this error when he listed San Felipe; however, he incorrectly attributed his P4 to Washington for an unknown reason.  Shull's P4 was in fact issued from San Felipe.  Washington was not called Washington on the Brazos until after the Civil War.  It was simply Washington during this period.  It was a military stanging and supply point.  Perhaps there are documents of one type or another from that location similar to the known Bexer & Gonzales issues; but, I've never seen one.
I am listing these using the Criswell number first and then Shull's number in (*).  In some cases I use my personal listing with the Criswell / Shull number following in (*/*) brackets.  Many collectors, including myself, still use the Criswell 1992 book; but, I stronly suggest colelctors acquire a Shull book as all his images are in color and are higher resolution images.  I am adding a W behind P or PW for Provisional Warrant for My Order!  I will do the same with Velasco, Columbia and Washington.

Provisional Capitol of Texas
San Felipe de Austin

PW1  (PGG1 / P5)  Issued at Gonzales, Texas on 28 Nov 1835  The imaged warrant was a payment for supplies delivered to that military post.  This order was made by a Sub-contractor who had authority granted by the Provisional Government at San Felipe to issue promissory notes or a 'Sight Draft' for the purpose of securing supplies for Volunteer Army of Texas.     
PW2  (P5 / P3)  Finance Committee Voucher.  It is a declaration "In the Name of the People of Texas Free and Soverign" and was issued December 24th 1835.  It is a Civil order by the Committee on Finance to pay a specific individual his per diem for services on the General Council as well as milage due him from funds not otherwise appropriated.  John McMullen, Chairman of the Finance Committee is the only signature on this warrant.  
PW3  (P4 / P2)  Finance Committee Voucher.  This warrant was issued 25 December, 1835.  The only difference between this warrant and the last is the addition of a counter-signature by J.W. Moody who indicated he was Auditor of Public Accounts by adding Aud Pub a/c.  The payment appears to be to a partnership and most likely was for supplies for the army; but, it may have been for civil government supplies.  They are the same type in my opinion, but we do separate later printed documents by presence of one or two signatures.  Perhaps there is a reason for some to have only one signature and others requiring two.  
PW4  (P2 / P1)  Styled "To Joshua Fletcher Esquire" (Treasurer of the Provisional Government) these are internal transfer orders of funds to other committees for specific purpose; or to a specific individual or business and are Order Instrument which cna be transferred by endorsement.. They follow a specific format with Serial Number at top left, Appropriation Number and the Amount at top right and at bottom left.  They are dated bottom center, signed bottom left by H. C. Hudson, Controller (not Comptroller) and at right by J.W.Moody Auditor.  The warrant imaged in Criswell (92) was dated January 21st, 1836.  The one in Shull is dated Jan 20th, 1836 and the one I image is dated Jan 26, 1836  Image  Perhaps all of this type bear January dates.  They are very scarce; but are collectible and according to John Rowe the type most often encountered.
PW5  (P1 / P4)  The styling is simplified and says "The Treasurer of the provisional Government will pay to.." and it is made out to an individual and/or business.  Like the last warrant, it too is an Order Instrument.  The serial number is at top center.  An appropriation letter and the amount is found at top right and bottom left and are signed the same as the last Type.  This warrant Image is dated at bottom center.  The one is Criswell is dated February 29th, 1836.  The one in Shull is date February 12th, 1836.  The warrant imaged is dated February 14th, 1836.  Are all warrants of the type dated in February?  This warrant was payment to a specific soldier for the loss of his horse during the Siege of Bexer (notice the warrant imaged in Shull's book is written Bejar which is a phonetic spelling) and he in turn had an assignee.  Later warrants will name the soldier or businessman with assignee or attorney listed as well to the right.  This soldier had his equipment appraised and he lost his horse in battle but he recovered his bridle, saddle and rifle.  The appraisal was dated at Bexar.  He signed an affidavit a few weeks later at Gonzales saying the claim was true and was probably paid at that location by this assignee and the assignee was then paid in San Felipe with this warrant.


Hugh Shull's book lists Washington-on-the-Brazos as the Capital of Texas from Feb 26 to March 16, 1836.  "On the Brazos" as I stated above wasn't added to the name of that town until after the Civil War.  I have found records that the delegates to the Convention of 1836 at Washington were selected in February 1836 while in San Felipe.  It wasn't until March 1st, 1836 that the convention actually convened in Washington.  There are many differences of opinion with regard to dates to the different periods of Texas history and locations of the Capital and events.     

I'm not aware at this time of any warrants being issued from Washington during this period.  The government left San Felipe de Austin when they learned of the approaching Mexican forces.  Washington was where Sam Houston was waiting with his army and the Government withdrew to Washington for safety.  It was there in Washington, between March 1st and 17th, that the Texas Declaration of Independence was drafted and signed, the Texas Constitution was written and the Interim Government of the Republic of Texas was organized.  The Run Away Scrape began from that location early on March 17th, 1836 when the convention adjourned and everyone departed.  

Harrisburg and Galveston were considered temporary Capitals of Texas when President David G. Burnet was present.  He and the Cabinet met at Sam Houston's headquarters shortly after the battle at San Jacinto which occurred on April 21st, 1836.  The Government then returned to Galveston and later moved on to temporary quarters at Velasco.  I haven't tried to research the dates of each location yet.

Temporary Capital

Second Issue of Warrants

The Government records were ordered removed from Galveston and taken to Fort Velasco for safe keeping.  Business was conducted there for several months.  Velasco was primarily a military staging area and supply depot.  Soldiers were discharged and returned home from Velasco while others arrived and joined the Army.  Supplies were off loaded and disbursed.  There were a number of warrants issued for both Civil and Military purpose.  

The earliest known date, based on images in reference books, is the June 5th V1 illustrated in both references.  December 1st, 1836 is the latest date and different examples are found in both books for the V4 & V5 which are Military Certificates.  It is very possible warrants were issued from Velasco before the Government arrived and long after it had gone on to Columbia in the form of Military payments.  Velasco was to a mobile Government in transition and later permanent seat at Columbia as Gonzales had been to San Felipe de Austin.  

[When Criswell & Shull numbers are the same I will list only the one in (*).  I have been tempted to rearrange these warrants styled as Certificates and Drafts based on dates found on the documents.  I have decided against it for the time being.  Clearly there is a difference in a Certificate which was a temporary document.  A draft was an order instrument you could transfer with endorsement.  A certificate had to be turned in at Velasco or later at Columbia where it would be audited and replaced with a draft.  I don't believe the certificates were transferable unless a notarized statement accompanied it.]

VW1  (V1)  Handwritten  Draft #25 (both).  Dated June 5, 1836  Signed only by A. Brigham, Auditor
VW1A  (V1A)  Said to be, same as last (no image)  Also has signature of H.C. Hudson, Comptroller at left.   
VW2  (V2)  This Draft was signed by Asa Brigham, Auditor and H.C. Hudson, Comptroller.  Criswell's is dated July 17th and Shull's is dated September 13th.  The example that I provide you an image of is dated Aug. 18th, 1836  Image    
VW3  (V3)  Printed Certificate (Military) Dated Sept 23rd in Criswell and Sept 29th in Shull they were signed by George W. Poe, Acting Pay Master General.
VW4  (V4)  Printed Certificate (Military) Dated Dec 1st 1836 in both references they were signed by Geo W Poe, Acting Pay Master General and were also countersigned by J. W. Scott, Act Paymaster
VW5  (V5)  Same as last with slightly different lettering.  These two are most likely two different plate positions from the same sheet.  They have the same dates and signature combinations.
VW7  (V7)  Handwritten Military Certificate.  Both examples in Criswell & Shull are dated September 3rd 1836.  The one I provide an image of is dated at Velasco on Sept 4th, 1836.  Signed by Poe, Actg Pay Master General  Image  
VW7A  (V7A)  Handwritten Certificate signed by James D Owen, Paymaster Volunteers Texas.  This document was dated on 26 July 1836.  I personally do not believe this warrant was issued at Velasco.  I believe this Certificate was issued this soldier in the field or perhaps from Brazoria which was a river port on the Brazos River closer to Columbia than Valesco.  I have found James D Owen, Paymaster associated with supply documents at Brazoria.

Permanent Capital
Third Issue
of Warrants

C2A    Image    
C2B    Image    
C2C    Image  
C2E     Image    (Not Imaged or Listed ~ Reported to Hugh Shull ~ This No. assigned)
C4       Image
C5A     Image    
C16A   Image  
Bounty Money 

Permanent Capital
Fourth Issue
of Warrants

HW1A    Image    
HW9A    Image   
HW14     Image     

Permanent Capital
Fifth Issue
of Warrants

AW2          Image   
AW5B       Image    Known dated 1842 ~ 1846.  Some post-Republic.  This one is Feb 1846    
AW9          Image    
AW9B       Image      
AW10A     Image   

Permanent Capital
Fifth Issue
of Warrants

W2      Image
W10    Image    

Consolidated Fund
Houston & Austin

Consolidated Fund of Texas  -  Houston & Austin
Consolidated fund of Texas notes were authorized by act of Congress on the "7th of June, 1837 to consolidate and fund the public debt".   1837 HOUSTON Issue:  All bear the printed date "September 1, 1837" but, other dates are frequently written on the notes.  There are also 1839 Houston Issues and Austin, Tx issues
CF10:   Issued Houston, March 1, 1839  Image    Another Payable to Kelsey H. Douglass    Image
CF15a:  Issued Austin , November 4, 1839 (New Variety - Unlisted)   Image  

Private Issues:

Briscoe, Harris & Company - While it's reported that genuine issued notes exist I've never seen one.  This is an unissued remainder with partial filled in "Bogus Date & Signature" that is found on many of these very scarce notes.  Seldom offered in any condition.  Image  

Kelsey H. Douglas – Issued & UnIssued specimens known.  This merchant issued the notes in Nacogdoches & that were payable in New Orleans. They circulated at par value.  The $5 is the scarcest denomination.
$5.00  1840  #367  Handwritten 'Canceled'  Image   UnIssued Sheet:  2235  Image   

Nacogdoches Real Estate Deposit and Exchange Company.  Nothing really known of this issue.  Nacogdoches, circa 1837 as the note is payable in STAR notes.  RARE issue.  I believe there are six pieces known to exist now.  SMU library has two or three and two colletors have examples. This is the $3.00  Image  

Commercial & Agricultural Bank of Texas  Columbia, TX  $1.00  Vignette of Daniel Boone  Image
This is one I"ve never come across before:  $2.00 remainder:  Image  


Texian Loan:  This is the January 11, 1836 document.  Signed by Stephen F. Austin (Father of Texas), B.T. Archer, and William H. Wharton, these so-called land commissioners went to New Orleans to raise funds for Texas.  This document is extremely scarce and sought after.   Image

First Texian Loan Script:  This document is dated January 1838 and made the Texian Loan legal.  Signed by Sam Houston (fancy) and Henry Smith this document is considered quite rare!   Image

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