Colonial - c.
1824 ~ 1835
1835 ~ 1836
Republic - 1836 ~ 1845/6*
Notes Warrants Documents
Early State - 1846 ~ 1861
Civil War - 1861 ~ 1865
Post WAr - 1865 & later
First Issue of Notes
in the name of The Republic of Texas. These notes were
issued from Houston, Texas: They bear dates of 1837 and 1838.
This "Star" note issue was authorized by act of Congress
"June 9th, 1837". There is no vignette on these notes other than
the outlined STAR at center. Several minor varieties exist of each
type and possibly for some not yet listed. Most collectors strive
to include at least one of these in their collections. All are considered
to be extremely scarce!
The author will attempt at some later date to notate the
differences of each period in history and each variety found in those periods;
however, at this time I will only show one example of each denomination
of note. Please report the discovery of new varieties. These
reference numbers were originally taken from Wm. West Bradbeer's 1915 reference.
It was expanded on by Grover C. Criswell between 1957 and 1992 when
the first four of his five editions of Confederate States notes also contained
the Southern State issues. Criswell planned on a two book series in
1996 but he passed away before the State issues could be completed. Hugh
Shull was co-author of the 1997 CSA book and he finally published his reference
in 2006 (2007). Criswell added about twelve (12) new additions to
Texas in his 1992 book. Hugh Shull added a few more when his book
came out and changed the order and reference numbers for some of the Early
State and Civil War issues and added the first post-War listing. There
hadonly been one new note variety recognized since 1992 through 2012 and
that was the $50 H21B. In 2013 another variety was discovered and listed
which was designated $50 H21C. There are quite a few unlisted early
state warrants included in this listing as well as a post-War issue and
they too will be added to Shull's next book, provided he has the ability
to do so..
Hugh Shull reference numbers are used throughout, although I may insert
a Joe Olson number for any item unlisted in Shull. I hope to add
a complete description of the varieties at a later date as I find time to
update this webpage. Crutch Williams
There are very few known
handwritten promissory notes
or warrants from this era, c. 1824~1835. There is only one that was
printed and that I consider collectible. Consult your Olson reference
for some of the other issue types. There are all Rare!
San Felipe de Austin $50.00 1830
A receipt and promissory note in one document that could be transferred.
Go To Documents to view
Texian Loan (Jan 1836) and First Texian Loan Script (Jan 1838)
$5.00 H1 & H2
Second Issue of
Notes in the name of The Government of Texas. Issued
from Houston, Texas all notes bear dates of 1838 or 1839. This
issue of notes was authorized by act of Congress "June 9th, 1837". The
notes are engraved by Draper, Toppan, Longacre # Co. Philadelphis &
N.Y. The $1 is extremely scarce, the $3 very scarce and $5 moderately
scarce. The $10, $20 & $50 are considered common with a couple
$10.00 H3, H3A, H4 & H4A image
$20.00 H5, H5A & H6 image
$50.00 H7, H7A, H7B, H8 Image
$100.00 H9, H9A, H10, H10A, H10B & H11
$500.00 H12 image
$ 1.00 H14 & H14A Liberty at
left, Minerva at center Image
$ 3.00 H15, H15A & H15B Commerce
seated at center Image
$ 5.00 H16 Commerce at left, Indian
on horseback hunting buffalo ctr. Image
$10.00 H17 & H17A Ship at left, Industry
seated at right Image
$20.00 H19 Liberty at left, Minerva at right
$50.00 H21 Sailor with flag at left, Justice
seated at center Image
(Four recognized varieties)
Two Variations of H19 'Star of David' Shield
The star at left looks to have an irregular or squared
bottom point 'to the eye'. When viewed under strong magnification,
you can see several lines outlining the star. The star at right is
shaded in and the lines aren't visible. No frame line visible above
"20" counter at left while one is present at right. This is a Minor
H19b $20 Sub-variety and/or Plate State
Images for study only
PCGS & PMG have both slabbed examples of these
H21B & H21C as
of March 2013:
Here are images H21,
, H21A and right H21C
Third Issue of Notes
in the name of The Republic of Texas These are
Change Notes but are commonly known by the term Medallion.
They were issued from Houston, Texas and bear written dates in 1838.
This issue was authorized by act of Congress "December 14, 1837"
$ 1.00 H23 Medallion at left, man center [sleeping?],
Thomas Jefferson right Image
$ 2.00 H23 Medallion at left, Liberty, Shield &
Eagle center, cotton right. Image
$ 3.00 H27 Medallion at left, [same as the
$1 design] Image
Fourth Issue of Notes,
in the name of - The Republic of Texas. This
series was issued from Austin, Texas. $150,000 was authorized by
an act of Congress, December 14, 1838, in $1, $2 and $3 denominations.
They bear written dates 1839 - 1841. This issue was engraved
by "Endicaott & Clark. New Orleans". Collected as part of the
Red Back issue the backs of these Change Notes are blank. These
were printed as four (4) subject sheets of 1-1-2-3.
$ 1.00 A1 Ceres seated at center, Indian
at left Image
$ 2.00 A2 Cowboy roping longhorn steer, deer
at left Image
$ 3.00 A3 Ceres seated by Lone Star, cotton
plant at left Image
Fifth Issue of Notes,
in the name of - The Republic of Texas. Issued
from Austin, Texas and authorized by act of Congress, January 19th, 1839
These notes were printed by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, New
Orleans & New York
Written dates of 1839-1841. Commonly referred to as Red Backs,
all denominations $5 - $500 have an ornate red-orange [burnt-orange] design
on the back featuring a large star in the center. Image of this
$ 5.00 A4 Indian
seated, Deaf Smith at right Image
$ 10.00 A5 Hercules at left,
ship right Image
$ 20.00 A6 Indian with
bow l., Indian & maiden at center, Victory r. Image
$ 50.00 A7 Nude maiden l., steamship
c., Stephen F. Austin r. Image
$100.00 A8 Minerva seated & Mercury
flying c., train l., ship r. Image
$500.00 A9 Commerce & Industry
seated, Libery r. Image
Sixth Issue of Notes
in the name of - The Republic of Texas. Issued
from Austin, Texas. Authorized by act of Congress, January 29, 1842.
These are the Famous EXCHEQUER SERIES
of notes. For years people thought these notes were actually signed
by Sam Houston! He didn't sign them! His signature on these
notes are secretarial. These notes are extremely RARE! There
are perhaps 25 to 30 pieces known to exist for all denomionation.
$ .125 A10 Horse pulling plow, train left, woman right.
$ .25 A11 Liberty
seated, train left, woman in clouds right Criswell plate, Rowe/SMU
$ .50 A12 Horse pulling plow to right, train left,
photo-John Rowe, SMU Image
$ 1.00 A14 Ceres by bale of
cotton, large size note Criswell plate, Rowe/SMU Image
$ 5.00 A17 All printed signatures, name filled
in, endorsed back Criswell plate, Rowe/SMU Image
[Images courtesy John N. Rowe, III Collection at Southern Methodist
I intend to get into a detailed discussion of the warrants and/or
promissory notes, &c that are found in this period of history. A few
of those listed in Shull and Olson are in my opinion uncollectible. They
are generally one of a kind documents penned at Bexer (San Antonio), Gonzales
or some other location for either Military or Civil purpose which in turn
had to be taken to San Felipe de Austin where the bearer would be issued
another document (warrant) upon presentation of the original item..
Criswell was incorrect when he said Washington (on the Brazos
was the place where these Provisional warrants were issued and Hugh Shull
corrected this error when he listed San Felipe; however, he incorrectly
attributed his P4 to Washington for an unknown reason. Shull's P4
was in fact issued from San Felipe. Washington was not called Washington
on the Brazos
until after the Civil War. It was simply Washington
during this period. It was a military stanging and supply point. Perhaps
there are documents of one type or another from that location similar to
the known Bexer & Gonzales issues; but, I've never seen one.
I am listing these using the Criswell number first and then Shull's
number in (*). In some cases I use my personal listing with the
Criswell / Shull number following in (*/*) brackets. Many collectors,
including myself, still use the Criswell 1992 book; but, I stronly suggest
colelctors acquire a Shull book as all his images are in color and are
higher resolution images. I am adding a W behind P or PW
for Provisional Warrant for My
! I will do the same with Velasco, Columbia and Washington.
Provisional Capitol of Texas
San Felipe de Austin
PW1 (PGG1 / P5) Issued
at Gonzales, Texas on 28 Nov 1835
The imaged warrant was a payment for supplies delivered to that military
post. This order was made by a Sub-contractor
who had authority granted by the Provisional Government at San Felipe to
issue promissory notes or a 'Sight Draft' for the purpose
of securing supplies for Volunteer Army of Texas.
/ P3) Finance Committee Voucher.
It is a declaration "In the Name of the People of Texas Free and
Soverign" and was issued December 24th 1835. It is a Civil
order by the Committee on Finance
to pay a specific individual his per diem for services on the General
Council as well as milage due him from funds not otherwise appropriated.
John McMullen, Chairman of the Finance Committee is the only signature
on this warrant.
/ P2) Finance Committee Voucher.
This warrant was issued 25 December, 1835. The only
difference between this warrant and the last is the addition of a counter-signature
by J.W. Moody who indicated he was Auditor of Public Accounts by adding
Aud Pub a/c. The payment appears to be to a partnership and most likely
was for supplies for the army; but, it may have been for civil government
supplies. They are the same type in my opinion, but we do separate
later printed documents by presence of one or two signatures. Perhaps
there is a reason for some to have only one signature and others requiring
PW4 (P2 / P1) Styled
"To Joshua Fletcher Esquire"
(Treasurer of the Provisional Government) these are internal transfer orders
of funds to other committees for specific purpose; or to a specific individual
or business and are Order Instrument which cna be transferred by endorsement..
They follow a specific format with Serial Number at top left, Appropriation
Number and the Amount at top right and at bottom left. They are dated
bottom center, signed bottom left by H. C. Hudson, Controller (not Comptroller)
and at right by J.W.Moody Auditor. The warrant imaged in Criswell
(92) was dated January 21st, 1836. The one in Shull is dated Jan 20th,
1836 and the one I image is dated Jan 26, 1836 Image Perhaps
all of this type bear January dates. They are very scarce; but are
collectible and according to John Rowe the type most often encountered.
PW5 (P1 / P4) The
styling is simplified and says "The Treasurer
of the provisional Government will pay to.." and it is made
out to an individual and/or business. Like the last warrant, it
too is an Order Instrument. The serial number is at top center. An
appropriation letter and the amount is found at top right and bottom left
and are signed the same as the last Type. This warrant Image is dated
at bottom center. The one is Criswell is dated February 29th, 1836.
The one in Shull is date February 12th, 1836. The warrant imaged
is dated February 14th, 1836. Are all warrants of the type dated
in February? This warrant was payment to a specific soldier for the
loss of his horse during the Siege of Bexer (notice the warrant imaged
in Shull's book is written Bejar which is a phonetic spelling) and he in
turn had an assignee. Later warrants will name the soldier or businessman
with assignee or attorney listed as well to the right. This soldier
had his equipment appraised and he lost his horse in battle but he recovered
his bridle, saddle and rifle. The appraisal was dated at Bexar. He
signed an affidavit a few weeks later at Gonzales saying the claim was
true and was probably paid at that location by this assignee and the assignee
was then paid in San Felipe with this warrant.
Hugh Shull's book lists Washington-on-the-Brazos as the
Capital of Texas from Feb 26 to March 16, 1836. "On the Brazos"
as I stated above wasn't added to the name of that town until after the
Civil War. I have found records that the delegates to the Convention
of 1836 at Washington were selected in February 1836 while in San Felipe.
It wasn't until March 1st, 1836 that the convention actually convened
in Washington. There are many differences of opinion with regard to
dates to the different periods of Texas history and locations of the Capital
I'm not aware at this time of any warrants being issued from Washington
during this period. The government left San Felipe de Austin when
they learned of the approaching Mexican forces. Washington was where
Sam Houston was waiting with his army and the Government withdrew to Washington
for safety. It was there in Washington, between March 1st and 17th,
that the Texas Declaration of Independence was drafted and signed, the
Texas Constitution was written and the Interim Government of the Republic
of Texas was organized. The Run Away Scrape began from that
location early on March 17th, 1836 when the convention adjourned and everyone
Harrisburg and Galveston were considered temporary Capitals of Texas
when President David G. Burnet was present. He and the Cabinet met
at Sam Houston's headquarters shortly after the battle at San Jacinto which
occurred on April 21st, 1836. The Government then returned to Galveston
and later moved on to temporary quarters at Velasco. I haven't tried
to research the dates of each location yet.
Second Issue of Warrants
The Government records were ordered removed from Galveston
and taken to Fort Velasco for safe keeping. Business was conducted
there for several months. Velasco was primarily a military staging
area and supply depot. Soldiers were discharged and returned home from
Velasco while others arrived and joined the Army. Supplies were off
loaded and disbursed. There were a number of warrants issued for both
Civil and Military purpose.
The earliest known date, based on images in reference books, is the
June 5th V1 illustrated in both references. December 1st, 1836 is
the latest date and different examples are found in both books for the
V4 & V5 which are Military Certificates. It is very possible warrants
were issued from Velasco before the Government arrived and long after it
had gone on to Columbia in the form of Military payments. Velasco
was to a mobile Government in transition and later permanent seat at Columbia
as Gonzales had been to San Felipe de Austin.
[When Criswell & Shull numbers are the same I will list only the
one in (*). I have been tempted to rearrange these warrants styled
as Certificates and Drafts based on dates found on the documents. I
have decided against it for the time being. Clearly there is a difference
in a Certificate which was a temporary document. A draft was an order
instrument you could transfer with endorsement. A certificate had
to be turned in at Velasco or later at Columbia where it would be audited
and replaced with a draft. I don't believe the certificates were transferable
unless a notarized statement accompanied it.]
Handwritten Draft #25 (both). Dated June 5, 1836
Signed only by A. Brigham, Auditor
) Said to be, same as last (no image) Also
has signature of H.C. Hudson, Comptroller at left.
) This Draft was signed by Asa Brigham, Auditor
and H.C. Hudson, Comptroller. Criswell's is dated July 17th and
Shull's is dated September 13th. The example that I provide you an
image of is dated Aug. 18th, 1836 Image
Certificate (Military) Dated Sept 23rd in Criswell and Sept 29th in Shull
they were signed by George W. Poe, Acting Pay Master General.
Certificate (Military) Dated Dec 1st 1836 in both references they were
signed by Geo W Poe, Acting Pay Master General and were also countersigned
by J. W. Scott, Act Paymaster
as last with slightly different lettering. These two are most likely
two different plate positions from the same sheet. They have the
same dates and signature combinations.
Military Certificate. Both examples in Criswell & Shull are dated
September 3rd 1836. The one I provide an image of is dated at Velasco
on Sept 4th, 1836
. Signed by Poe, Actg
Pay Master General Image
Certificate signed by James D Owen, Paymaster Volunteers Texas. This
document was dated on 26 July 1836. I personally do not believe this
warrant was issued at Velasco. I believe this Certificate was issued
this soldier in the field or perhaps from Brazoria which was a river port
on the Brazos River closer to Columbia than Valesco. I have found
James D Owen, Paymaster associated with supply documents at Brazoria.
Third Issue of Warrants
(Not Imaged or Listed ~ Reported to Hugh Shull ~ This No. assigned)
Fourth Issue of Warrants
Fifth Issue of Warrants
Known dated 1842 ~ 1846. Some post-Republic. This one is Feb
Fifth Issue of Warrants
Consolidated Fund of Texas
- Houston & Austin
Consolidated fund of Texas notes were authorized by act of Congress
on the "7th of June, 1837 to consolidate and fund the public debt".
1837 HOUSTON Issue: All bear the printed date "September 1, 1837"
but, other dates are frequently written on the notes. There are also
1839 Houston Issues and Austin, Tx issues
CF10: Issued Houston, March 1, 1839 Image
Another Payable to Kelsey H. Douglass Image
CF15a: Issued Austin , November 4, 1839 (New Variety - Unlisted) Image
Briscoe, Harris & Company - While it's reported
that genuine issued notes exist I've never seen one. This is an unissued
remainder with partial filled in "Bogus Date & Signature" that
is found on many of these very scarce notes. Seldom offered in any
Kelsey H. Douglas – Issued & UnIssued specimens
known. This merchant issued the notes in Nacogdoches & that were
payable in New Orleans. They circulated at par value. The $5 is the
$5.00 1840 #367 Handwritten 'Canceled' Image
UnIssued Sheet: 2235 Image
Real Estate Deposit and Exchange Company. Nothing really
known of this issue. Nacogdoches, circa 1837 as the note is payable
in STAR notes. RARE issue. I believe there are six pieces known
to exist now. SMU library has two or three and two colletors have examples.
This is the $3.00 Image
Agricultural Bank of Texas
Columbia, TX $1.00
Vignette of Daniel Boone Image.
This is one I"ve never come across before: $2.00 remainder:
Texian Loan: This is the January 11, 1836 document.
Signed by Stephen F. Austin (Father of Texas), B.T. Archer, and William
H. Wharton, these so-called land commissioners went to New Orleans to raise
funds for Texas. This document is extremely scarce and sought after.
First Texian Loan Script: This document is dated January
1838 and made the Texian Loan legal. Signed by Sam Houston (fancy)
and Henry Smith this document is considered quite rare! Image
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